Bernard J. Paris emeritus professor of English at the University of Florida, where he taught the application of psychology to literature. He has written psychoanalytic criticism in many essays and books, focusing on applications of Karen Horney's thinking. He has also written an intellectual biography, Karen Homey: A Psychoanalyst's Search for Self-Understanding (1994). In his recent work, as in this essay, he has been comparing his present views of Eliot with the view he took in Experiments in Life: George Eliot's Quest for Values (1965). He has been focusing on psychological changes in himself and his subsequently developed psychoanalytic approach to literature.